Bioinformatics - FastSK- Fast Sequence Analysis with Gapped String Kernels

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Title: FastSK: Fast Sequence Analysis with Gapped String Kernels

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Gapped k-mer kernels with Support Vector Machines (gkm-SVMs) have achieved strong predictive performance on regulatory DNA sequences on modestly-sized training sets. However, existing gkm-SVM algorithms suffer from the slow kernel computation time, as they depend exponentially on the sub-sequence feature-length, number of mismatch positions, and the task’s alphabet size. In this work, we introduce a fast and scalable algorithm for calculating gapped k-mer string kernels. Our method, named FastSK, uses a simplified kernel formulation that decomposes the kernel calculation into a set of independent counting operations over the possible mismatch positions. This simplified decomposition allows us to devise a fast Monte Carlo approximation that rapidly converges. FastSK can scale to much greater feature lengths, allows us to consider more mismatches, and is performant on a variety of sequence analysis tasks. On 10 DNA transcription factor binding site (TFBS) prediction datasets, FastSK consistently matches or outperforms the state-of-the-art gkmSVM-2.0 algorithms in AUC, while achieving average speedups in kernel computation of 100 times and speedups of 800 times for large feature lengths. We further show that FastSK outperforms character-level recurrent and convolutional neural networks across all 10 TFBS tasks. We then extend FastSK to 7 English medical named entity recognition datasets and 10 protein remote homology detection datasets. FastSK consistently matches or outperforms these baselines. Our algorithm is available as a Python package and as C++ source code. (Available for download at Install with the command make or pip install)


    author = {Blakely, Derrick and Collins, Eamon and Singh, Ritambhara and Norton, Andrew and Lanchantin, Jack and Qi, Yanjun},
    title = "{FastSK: fast sequence analysis with gapped string kernels}",
    journal = {Bioinformatics},
    volume = {36},
    number = {Supplement_2},
    pages = {i857-i865},
    year = {2020},
    month = {12},
    issn = {1367-4803},
    doi = {10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa817},
    url = {},
    eprint = {\_2/i857/35337038/btaa817.pdf},

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