Semi-Label-Text (Index of Posts):

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Deep Learning for Character-based Information Extraction on Chinese and Protein Sequence

Title: Deep Learning for Character-based Information Extraction on Chinese and Protein Sequence

  • authors: Yanjun Qi, Sujatha Das, Ronan Collobert, Jason Weston

Paper ECIR

Supplementary Here

Talk: Slide

Abstract

In this paper we introduce a deep neural network architecture to perform information extraction on character-based sequences, e.g. named-entity recognition on Chinese text or secondary-structure detection on protein sequences. With a task-independent architecture, the deep network relies only on simple character-based features, which obviates the need for task-specific feature engineering. The proposed discriminative framework includes three important strategies, (1) a deep learning module mapping characters to vector representations is included to capture the semantic relationship between characters; (2) abundant online sequences (unlabeled) are utilized to improve the vector representation through semi-supervised learning; and (3) the constraints of spatial dependency among output labels are modeled explicitly in the deep architecture. The experiments on four benchmark datasets have demonstrated that, the proposed architecture consistently leads to the state-of-the-art performance.

Citations

@inproceedings{qi2014deep,
  title={Deep learning for character-based information extraction},
  author={Qi, Yanjun and Das, Sujatha G and Collobert, Ronan and Weston, Jason},
  booktitle={European Conference on Information Retrieval},
  pages={668--674},
  year={2014},
  organization={Springer}
}

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Systems and methods for semi-supervised relationship extraction

Title: Systems and methods for semi-supervised relationship extraction

  • authors: Qi, Yanjun and Bai, Bing and Ning, Xia and Kuksa, Pavel

Paper1: Semi-supervised abstraction-augmented string kernel for multi-level bio-relation extraction

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  • Talk: Slide

  • Abstract Bio-relation extraction (bRE), an important goal in bio-text mining, involves subtasks identifying relationships between bio-entities in text at multiple levels, e.g., at the article, sentence or relation level. A key limitation of current bRE systems is that they are restricted by the availability of annotated corpora. In this work we introduce a semi-supervised approach that can tackle multi-level bRE via string comparisons with mismatches in the string kernel framework. Our string kernel implements an abstraction step, which groups similar words to generate more abstract entities, which can be learnt with unlabeled data. Specifically, two unsupervised models are proposed to capture contextual (local or global) semantic similarities between words from a large unannotated corpus. This Abstraction-augmented String Kernel (ASK) allows for better generalization of patterns learned from annotated data and provides a unified framework for solving bRE with multiple degrees of detail. ASK shows effective improvements over classic string kernels on four datasets and achieves state-of-the-art bRE performance without the need for complex linguistic features.

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Paper2: Semi-Supervised Convolution Graph Kernels for Relation Extraction

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  • Talk: Slide
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  • Abstract Extracting semantic relations between entities is an important step towards automatic text understanding. In this paper, we propose a novel Semi-supervised Convolution Graph Kernel (SCGK) method for semantic Relation Extraction (RE) from natural language. By encoding English sentences as dependence graphs among words, SCGK computes kernels (similarities) between sentences using a convolution strategy, i.e., calculating similarities over all possible short single paths from two dependence graphs. Furthermore, SCGK adds three semi-supervised strategies in the kernel calculation to incorporate soft-matches between (1) words, (2) grammatical dependencies, and (3) entire sentences, respectively. From a large unannotated corpus, these semi-supervision steps learn to capture contextual semantic patterns of elements in natural sentences, which therefore alleviate the lack of annotated examples in most RE corpora. Through convolutions and multi-level semi-supervisions, SCGK provides a powerful model to encode both syntactic and semantic evidence existing in natural English sentences, which effectively recovers the target relational patterns of interest. We perform extensive experiments on five RE benchmark datasets which aim to identify interaction relations from biomedical literature. Our results demonstrate that SCGK achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the task of semantic relation extraction.

Paper3: Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning

  • Pavel P. Kuksa, Yanjun Qi,
  • PDF

  • Abstract We describe a novel semi-supervised method called WordCodebook Learning (WCL), and apply it to the task of bionamed entity recognition (bioNER). Typical bioNER systems can be seen as tasks of assigning labels to words in bioliterature text. To improve supervised tagging, WCL learns a class of word-level feature embeddings to capture word semantic meanings or word label patterns from a large unlabeled corpus. Words are then clustered according to their embedding vectors through a vector quantization step, where each word is assigned into one of the codewords in a codebook. Finally codewords are treated as new word attributes and are added for entity labeling. Two types of wordcodebook learning are proposed: (1) General WCL, where an unsupervised method uses contextual semantic similarity of words to learn accurate word representations; (2) Task-oriented WCL, where for every word a semi-supervised method learns target-class label patterns from unlabeled data using supervised signals from trained bioNER model. Without the need for complex linguistic features, we demonstrate utility of WCL on the BioCreativeII gene name recognition competition data, where WCL yields state-of-the-art performance and shows great improvements over supervised baselines and semi-supervised counter peers.

Citations

@INPROCEEDINGS{ecml2010ask,
  author = {Pavel P. Kuksa and Yanjun Qi and Bing Bai and Ronan Collobert and
	Jason Weston and Vladimir Pavlovic and Xia Ning},
  title = {Semi-Supervised Abstraction-Augmented String Kernel for Multi-Level
	Bio-Relation Extraction},
  booktitle = {ECML},
  year = {2010},
  note = {Acceptance rate: 106/658 (16%)},
  bib2html_pubtype = {Refereed Conference},
}

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Semi-Supervised Sequence Labeling with Self-Learned Feature

Title: Semi-Supervised Sequence Labeling with Self-Learned Feature

  • authors: Yanjun 
Qi,
Pavel
P 
Kuksa,
 Ronan 
Collobert, Kunihiko
 Sadamasa,
 Koray
 Kavukcuoglu,
 Jason 
Weston

Paper ICDM

Talk: Slide

Abstract

Typical information extraction (IE) systems can be seen as tasks assigning labels to words in a natural language sequence. The performance is restricted by the availability of labeled words. To tackle this issue, we propose a semi-supervised approach to improve the sequence labeling procedure in IE through a class of algorithms with self-learned features (SLF). A supervised classifier can be trained with annotated text sequences and used to classify each word in a large set of unannotated sentences. By averaging predicted labels over all cases in the unlabeled corpus, SLF training builds class label distribution patterns for each word (or word attribute) in the dictionary and re-trains the current model iteratively adding these distributions as extra word features. Basic SLF models how likely a word could be assigned to target class types. Several extensions are proposed, such as learning words’ class boundary distributions. SLF exhibits robust and scalable behaviour and is easy to tune. We applied this approach on four classical IE tasks: named entity recognition (German and English), part-of-speech tagging (English) and one gene name recognition corpus. Experimental results show effective improvements over the supervised baselines on all tasks. In addition, when compared with the closely related self-training idea, this approach shows favorable advantages.

Citations

@inproceedings{qi2009semi,
  title={Semi-supervised sequence labeling with self-learned features},
  author={Qi, Yanjun and Kuksa, Pavel and Collobert, Ronan and Sadamasa, Kunihiko and Kavukcuoglu, Koray and Weston, Jason},
  booktitle={2009 Ninth IEEE International Conference on Data Mining},
  pages={428--437},
  year={2009},
  organization={IEEE}
}

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Semi-supervised multi-task learning Using BioText based Labels to Augument PPI Prediction

Title: Semi-supervised multi-task learning for predicting interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins

  • authors: Yanjun Qi, Oznur Tastan, Jaime G. Carbonell, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, Jason Weston

Paper Bioinformatics

Talk: Slide

Abstract

  • Motivation: Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are critical for virtually every biological function. Recently, researchers suggested to use supervised learning for the task of classifying pairs of proteins as interacting or not. However, its performance is largely restricted by the availability of truly interacting proteins (labeled). Meanwhile, there exists a considerable amount of protein pairs where an association appears between two partners, but not enough experimental evidence to support it as a direct interaction (partially labeled).

  • Results: We propose a semi-supervised multi-task framework for predicting PPIs from not only labeled, but also partially labeled reference sets. The basic idea is to perform multi-task learning on a supervised classification task and a semi-supervised auxiliary task. The supervised classifier trains a multi-layer perceptron network for PPI predictions from labeled examples. The semi-supervised auxiliary task shares network layers of the supervised classifier and trains with partially labeled examples. Semi-supervision could be utilized in multiple ways. We tried three approaches in this article, (i) classification (to distinguish partial positives with negatives); (ii) ranking (to rate partial positive more likely than negatives); (iii) embedding (to make data clusters get similar labels). We applied this framework to improve the identification of interacting pairs between HIV-1 and human proteins. Our method improved upon the state-of-the-art method for this task indicating the benefits of semi-supervised multi-task learning using auxiliary information.

Citations

@article{qi2010semi,
  title={Semi-supervised multi-task learning for predicting interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins},
  author={Qi, Yanjun and Tastan, Oznur and Carbonell, Jaime G and Klein-Seetharaman, Judith and Weston, Jason},
  journal={Bioinformatics},
  volume={26},
  number={18},
  pages={i645--i652},
  year={2010},
  publisher={Oxford University Press}
}

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