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We design this categoy of machine learning tools to extract knowledge from biomedical text..
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FastSK- Fast Sequence Analysis with Gapped String Kernels

Title: FastSK: Fast Sequence Analysis with Gapped String Kernels

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Gapped k-mer kernels with Support Vector Machines (gkm-SVMs) have achieved strong predictive performance on regulatory DNA sequences on modestly-sized training sets. However, existing gkm-SVM algorithms suffer from the slow kernel computation time, as they depend exponentially on the sub-sequence feature-length, number of mismatch positions, and the task’s alphabet size. In this work, we introduce a fast and scalable algorithm for calculating gapped k-mer string kernels. Our method, named FastSK, uses a simplified kernel formulation that decomposes the kernel calculation into a set of independent counting operations over the possible mismatch positions. This simplified decomposition allows us to devise a fast Monte Carlo approximation that rapidly converges. FastSK can scale to much greater feature lengths, allows us to consider more mismatches, and is performant on a variety of sequence analysis tasks. On 10 DNA transcription factor binding site (TFBS) prediction datasets, FastSK consistently matches or outperforms the state-of-the-art gkmSVM-2.0 algorithms in AUC, while achieving average speedups in kernel computation of 100 times and speedups of 800 times for large feature lengths. We further show that FastSK outperforms character-level recurrent and convolutional neural networks across all 10 TFBS tasks. We then extend FastSK to 7 English medical named entity recognition datasets and 10 protein remote homology detection datasets. FastSK consistently matches or outperforms these baselines. Our algorithm is available as a Python package and as C++ source code. (Available for download at Install with the command make or pip install)


@article {Blakely2020.04.21.053975,
	author = {Blakely, Derrick and Collins, Eamon and Singh, Ritambhara and Qi, Yanjun},
	title = {FastSK: Fast Sequence Analysis with Gapped String Kernels},
	elocation-id = {2020.04.21.053975},
	year = {2020},
	doi = {10.1101/2020.04.21.053975},
	publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory},
	URL = {},
	eprint = {},
	journal = {bioRxiv}

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Systems and methods for semi-supervised relationship extraction

Title: Systems and methods for semi-supervised relationship extraction

  • authors: Qi, Yanjun and Bai, Bing and Ning, Xia and Kuksa, Pavel

Paper1: Semi-supervised abstraction-augmented string kernel for multi-level bio-relation extraction

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  • Abstract Bio-relation extraction (bRE), an important goal in bio-text mining, involves subtasks identifying relationships between bio-entities in text at multiple levels, e.g., at the article, sentence or relation level. A key limitation of current bRE systems is that they are restricted by the availability of annotated corpora. In this work we introduce a semi-supervised approach that can tackle multi-level bRE via string comparisons with mismatches in the string kernel framework. Our string kernel implements an abstraction step, which groups similar words to generate more abstract entities, which can be learnt with unlabeled data. Specifically, two unsupervised models are proposed to capture contextual (local or global) semantic similarities between words from a large unannotated corpus. This Abstraction-augmented String Kernel (ASK) allows for better generalization of patterns learned from annotated data and provides a unified framework for solving bRE with multiple degrees of detail. ASK shows effective improvements over classic string kernels on four datasets and achieves state-of-the-art bRE performance without the need for complex linguistic features.

ask1 ask2

Paper2: Semi-Supervised Convolution Graph Kernels for Relation Extraction

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  • Abstract Extracting semantic relations between entities is an important step towards automatic text understanding. In this paper, we propose a novel Semi-supervised Convolution Graph Kernel (SCGK) method for semantic Relation Extraction (RE) from natural language. By encoding English sentences as dependence graphs among words, SCGK computes kernels (similarities) between sentences using a convolution strategy, i.e., calculating similarities over all possible short single paths from two dependence graphs. Furthermore, SCGK adds three semi-supervised strategies in the kernel calculation to incorporate soft-matches between (1) words, (2) grammatical dependencies, and (3) entire sentences, respectively. From a large unannotated corpus, these semi-supervision steps learn to capture contextual semantic patterns of elements in natural sentences, which therefore alleviate the lack of annotated examples in most RE corpora. Through convolutions and multi-level semi-supervisions, SCGK provides a powerful model to encode both syntactic and semantic evidence existing in natural English sentences, which effectively recovers the target relational patterns of interest. We perform extensive experiments on five RE benchmark datasets which aim to identify interaction relations from biomedical literature. Our results demonstrate that SCGK achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the task of semantic relation extraction.

Paper3: Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning

  • Pavel P. Kuksa, Yanjun Qi,
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  • Abstract We describe a novel semi-supervised method called WordCodebook Learning (WCL), and apply it to the task of bionamed entity recognition (bioNER). Typical bioNER systems can be seen as tasks of assigning labels to words in bioliterature text. To improve supervised tagging, WCL learns a class of word-level feature embeddings to capture word semantic meanings or word label patterns from a large unlabeled corpus. Words are then clustered according to their embedding vectors through a vector quantization step, where each word is assigned into one of the codewords in a codebook. Finally codewords are treated as new word attributes and are added for entity labeling. Two types of wordcodebook learning are proposed: (1) General WCL, where an unsupervised method uses contextual semantic similarity of words to learn accurate word representations; (2) Task-oriented WCL, where for every word a semi-supervised method learns target-class label patterns from unlabeled data using supervised signals from trained bioNER model. Without the need for complex linguistic features, we demonstrate utility of WCL on the BioCreativeII gene name recognition competition data, where WCL yields state-of-the-art performance and shows great improvements over supervised baselines and semi-supervised counter peers.


  author = {Pavel P. Kuksa and Yanjun Qi and Bing Bai and Ronan Collobert and
	Jason Weston and Vladimir Pavlovic and Xia Ning},
  title = {Semi-Supervised Abstraction-Augmented String Kernel for Multi-Level
	Bio-Relation Extraction},
  booktitle = {ECML},
  year = {2010},
  note = {Acceptance rate: 106/658 (16%)},
  bib2html_pubtype = {Refereed Conference},

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