5 minute read

Presenter Papers Paper URL Our Slides
Bill Intriguing Properties of Adversarial Examples, Ekin D. Cubuk, Barret Zoph, Samuel S. Schoenholz, Quoc V. Le 1 PDF PDF
Bill Adversarial Spheres 2 PDF PDF
Bill Adversarial Transformation Networks: Learning to Generate Adversarial Examples, Shumeet Baluja, Ian Fischer 3 PDF PDF
Bill Thermometer encoding: one hot way to resist adversarial examples 4 PDF PDF
  Adversarial Logit Pairing , Harini Kannan, Alexey Kurakin, Ian Goodfellow 5 PDF  
  1. Intriguing Properties of Adversarial Examples, Ekin D. Cubuk, Barret Zoph, Samuel S. Schoenholz, Quoc V. Le / It is becoming increasingly clear that many machine learning classifiers are vulnerable to adversarial examples. In attempting to explain the origin of adversarial examples, previous studies have typically focused on the fact that neural networks operate on high dimensional data, they overfit, or they are too linear. Here we argue that the origin of adversarial examples is primarily due to an inherent uncertainty that neural networks have about their predictions. We show that the functional form of this uncertainty is independent of architecture, dataset, and training protocol; and depends only on the statistics of the logit differences of the network, which do not change significantly during training. This leads to adversarial error having a universal scaling, as a power-law, with respect to the size of the adversarial perturbation. We show that this universality holds for a broad range of datasets (MNIST, CIFAR10, ImageNet, and random data), models (including state-of-the-art deep networks, linear models, adversarially trained networks, and networks trained on randomly shuffled labels), and attacks (FGSM, step l.l., PGD). Motivated by these results, we study the effects of reducing prediction entropy on adversarial robustness. Finally, we study the effect of network architectures on adversarial sensitivity. To do this, we use neural architecture search with reinforcement learning to find adversarially robust architectures on CIFAR10. Our resulting architecture is more robust to white \emph{and} black box attacks compared to previous attempts  

  2. Adversarial Spheres / Ian Goodfellow/ State of the art computer vision models have been shown to be vulnerable to small adversarial perturbations of the input. In other words, most images in the data distribution are both correctly classified by the model and are very close to a visually similar misclassified image. Despite substantial research interest, the cause of the phenomenon is still poorly understood and remains unsolved. We hypothesize that this counter intuitive behavior is a naturally occurring result of the high dimensional geometry of the data manifold. As a first step towards exploring this hypothesis, we study a simple synthetic dataset of classifying between two concentric high dimensional spheres. For this dataset we show a fundamental tradeoff between the amount of test error and the average distance to nearest error. In particular, we prove that any model which misclassifies a small constant fraction of a sphere will be vulnerable to adversarial perturbations of size O(1/d‾‾√). Surprisingly, when we train several different architectures on this dataset, all of their error sets naturally approach this theoretical bound. As a result of the theory, the vulnerability of neural networks to small adversarial perturbations is a logical consequence of the amount of test error observed. We hope that our theoretical analysis of this very simple case will point the way forward to explore how the geometry of complex real-world data sets leads to adversarial examples.  

  3. Adversarial Transformation Networks: Learning to Generate Adversarial Examples, Shumeet Baluja, Ian Fischer/ With the rapidly increasing popularity of deep neural networks for image recognition tasks, a parallel interest in generating adversarial examples to attack the trained models has arisen. To date, these approaches have involved either directly computing gradients with respect to the image pixels or directly solving an optimization on the image pixels. We generalize this pursuit in a novel direction: can a separate network be trained to efficiently attack another fully trained network? We demonstrate that it is possible, and that the generated attacks yield startling insights into the weaknesses of the target network. We call such a network an Adversarial Transformation Network (ATN). ATNs transform any input into an adversarial attack on the target network, while being minimally perturbing to the original inputs and the target network’s outputs. Further, we show that ATNs are capable of not only causing the target network to make an error, but can be constructed to explicitly control the type of misclassification made. We demonstrate ATNs on both simple MNIST digit classifiers and state-of-the-art ImageNet classifiers deployed by Google, Inc.: Inception ResNet-v2. 

  4. Thermometer encoding: one hot way to resist adversarial examples / It is well known that for neural networks, it is possible to construct inputs which are misclassified by the network yet indistinguishable from true data points, known as adversarial examples. We propose a simple modification to standard neural network architectures, \emph{thermometer encoding}, which significantly increases the robustness of the network to adversarial examples. We demonstrate this robustness with experiments on the MNIST, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and SVHN datasets, and show that models with thermometer-encoded inputs consistently have higher accuracy on adversarial examples, while also maintaining the same accuracy on non-adversarial examples and training more quickly.  

  5. Adversarial Logit Pairing , Harini Kannan, Alexey Kurakin, Ian Goodfellow (Submitted on 16 Mar 2018)/ In this paper, we develop improved techniques for defending against adversarial examples at scale. First, we implement the state of the art version of adversarial training at unprecedented scale on ImageNet and investigate whether it remains effective in this setting - an important open scientific question (Athalye et al., 2018). Next, we introduce enhanced defenses using a technique we call logit pairing, a method that encourages logits for pairs of examples to be similar. When applied to clean examples and their adversarial counterparts, logit pairing improves accuracy on adversarial examples over vanilla adversarial training; we also find that logit pairing on clean examples only is competitive with adversarial training in terms of accuracy on two datasets. Finally, we show that adversarial logit pairing achieves the state of the art defense on ImageNet against PGD white box attacks, with an accuracy improvement from 1.5% to 27.9%. Adversarial logit pairing also successfully damages the current state of the art defense against black box attacks on ImageNet (Tramer et al., 2018), dropping its accuracy from 66.6% to 47.1%. With this new accuracy drop, adversarial logit pairing ties with Tramer et al.(2018) for the state of the art on black box attacks on ImageNet.