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Decision Transformer: Reinforcement Learning via Sequence Modeling

  • Lili Chen, Kevin Lu, Aravind Rajeswaran, Kimin Lee, Aditya Grover, Michael Laskin, Pieter Abbeel, Aravind Srinivas, Igor Mordatch
  • https://arxiv.org/abs/2106.01345
  • We introduce a framework that abstracts Reinforcement Learning (RL) as a sequence modeling problem. This allows us to draw upon the simplicity and scalability of the Transformer architecture, and associated advances in language modeling such as GPT-x and BERT. In particular, we present Decision Transformer, an architecture that casts the problem of RL as conditional sequence modeling. Unlike prior approaches to RL that fit value functions or compute policy gradients, Decision Transformer simply outputs the optimal actions by leveraging a causally masked Transformer. By conditioning an autoregressive model on the desired return (reward), past states, and actions, our Decision Transformer model can generate future actions that achieve the desired return. Despite its simplicity, Decision Transformer matches or exceeds the performance of state-of-the-art model-free offline RL baselines on Atari, OpenAI Gym, and Key-to-Door tasks.

Prompting Decision Transformer for Few-Shot Policy Generalization

  • Mengdi Xu, Yikang Shen, Shun Zhang, Yuchen Lu, Ding Zhao, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Chuang Gan
  • https://arxiv.org/abs/2206.13499
  • Humans can leverage prior experience and learn novel tasks from a handful of demonstrations. In contrast to offline meta-reinforcement learning, which aims to achieve quick adaptation through better algorithm design, we investigate the effect of architecture inductive bias on the few-shot learning capability. We propose a Prompt-based Decision Transformer (Prompt-DT), which leverages the sequential modeling ability of the Transformer architecture and the prompt framework to achieve few-shot adaptation in offline RL. We design the trajectory prompt, which contains segments of the few-shot demonstrations, and encodes task-specific information to guide policy generation. Our experiments in five MuJoCo control benchmarks show that Prompt-DT is a strong few-shot learner without any extra finetuning on unseen target tasks. Prompt-DT outperforms its variants and strong meta offline RL baselines by a large margin with a trajectory prompt containing only a few timesteps. Prompt-DT is also robust to prompt length changes and can generalize to out-of-distribution (OOD) environments.