Foundations V - More about Behaviors of DNN

1Foundations understanding black-box Memorization InfoMax Expressive
Presenter Papers Paper URL Our Slides
Ceyer A Closer Look at Memorization in Deep Networks, ICML17 1 PDF PDF
  On the Expressive Efficiency of Overlapping Architectures of Deep Learning 2 DLSSpdf + video  
Mutual Information Opening the Black Box of Deep Neural Networks via Information 3 URL + video  
ChaoJiang Toward Deeper Understanding of Neural Networks: The Power of Initialization and a Dual View on Expressivity, NIPS16 PDF PDF
  1. A Closer Look at Memorization in Deep Networks, ICML17/ from etc Aaron Courville, Yoshua Bengio, Simon Lacoste-Julien / We examine the role of memorization in deep learning, drawing connections to capacity, generalization, and adversarial robustness. While deep networks are capable of memorizing noise data, our results suggest that they tend to prioritize learning simple patterns first. In our experiments, we expose qualitative differences in gradient-based optimization of deep neural networks (DNNs) on noise vs. real data. We also demonstrate that for appropriately tuned explicit regularization (e.g., dropout) we can degrade DNN training performance on noise datasets without compromising generalization on real data. Our analysis suggests that the notions of effective capacity which are dataset independent are unlikely to explain the generalization performance of deep networks when trained with gradient based methods because training data itself plays an important role in determining the degree of memorization.  

  2. On the Expressive Efficiency of Overlapping Architectures of Deep Learning / ICLR 2018/ Expressive efficiency refers to the relation between two architectures A and B, whereby any function realized by B could be replicated by A, but there exists functions realized by A, which cannot be replicated by B unless its size grows significantly larger. For example, it is known that deep networks are exponentially efficient with respect to shallow networks, in the sense that a shallow network must grow exponentially large in order to approximate the functions represented by a deep network of polynomial size. In this work, we extend the study of expressive efficiency to the attribute of network connectivity and in particular to the effect of “overlaps” in the convolutional process, i.e., when the stride of the convolution is smaller than its filter size (receptive field). To theoretically analyze this aspect of network’s design, we focus on a well-established surrogate for ConvNets called Convolutional Arithmetic Circuits (ConvACs), and then demonstrate empirically that our results hold for standard ConvNets as well. Specifically, our analysis shows that having overlapping local receptive fields, and more broadly denser connectivity, results in an exponential increase in the expressive capacity of neural networks. Moreover, while denser connectivity can increase the expressive capacity, we show that the most common types of modern architectures already exhibit exponential increase in expressivity, without relying on fully-connected layers.  

  3. Despite their great success, there is still no comprehensive theoretical understanding of learning with Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) or their inner organization. Previous work proposed to analyze DNNs in the \textit{Information Plane}; i.e., the plane of the Mutual Information values that each layer preserves on the input and output variables. They suggested that the goal of the network is to optimize the Information Bottleneck (IB) tradeoff between compression and prediction, successively, for each layer. In this work we follow up on this idea and demonstrate the effectiveness of the Information-Plane visualization of DNNs. Our main results are: (i) most of the training epochs in standard DL are spent on {\emph compression} of the input to efficient representation and not on fitting the training labels. (ii) The representation compression phase begins when the training errors becomes small and the Stochastic Gradient Decent (SGD) epochs change from a fast drift to smaller training error into a stochastic relaxation, or random diffusion, constrained by the training error value. (iii) The converged layers lie on or very close to the Information Bottleneck (IB) theoretical bound, and the maps from the input to any hidden layer and from this hidden layer to the output satisfy the IB self-consistent equations. This generalization through noise mechanism is unique to Deep Neural Networks and absent in one layer networks. (iv) The training time is dramatically reduced when adding more hidden layers. Thus the main advantage of the hidden layers is computational. This can be explained by the reduced relaxation time, as this it scales super-linearly (exponentially for simple diffusion) with the information compression from the previous layer.